Anticipating an increasing number of environmental disputes, in 1993, the International Court of Justice created a special Chamber of Environmental Matters. As it happens, no state sought to bring a claim heard within this “specialized” chamber before it was closed in 2006. Arguably, the dearth of cases and ensuing international environmental case law at the ICJ is a result of non-state actors being unable to bring cases before the Court, but also reflects the nature of obligations negotiated within modern treaty regimes that incorporate non-compliance mechanisms.

Information on efforts to increase “access to justice” is found in the above sections, as are questions about the effect of non-compliance mechanisms on the design of treaty obligations, but the focus of this section is on the many specialized environmental courts that exist at the local and national level and the training available to provide for these specialized fora.

There are hundreds of environmental courts operating around the world that creates demand for specialized judicial training and produces a huge pool of potential candidates for the judiciary of an international court for the environment.

In the following sections, we have provided (1) links to the websites of organizations working in related fields (in black text); and (2) a selection of documents (click on the images to download the pdf file) that summarize what's being done within these interconnected communities, which from our perspective, supports our core objectives.

Although our ability to provide PDF copies of academic articles is often limited by copyrights, we will be incorporating bibliographies for each section. We encourage you to help us build our bibliographies and to send us links to specific organizations and/or PDFs that you feel should be represented in this section.

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