Environmental Crime, Compliance and Enforcement, and the use of Non-Compliance Mechanisms all address regulatory efforts to prevent environmental damage, but do so among different stakeholders at the national, international, and global levels.

Environmental crimes can have local, regional, or global impacts; are defined through the negotiation of international standards; tend to be committed by individuals; are enforced locally or in a transboundary context; and are prosecuted within national legal systems. Specialized environmental courts or tribunals, and at a minimum, members of a specialized judiciary, are likely to be better able to assess the scale of damage associated with environmental crimes.

As environmental crime relates to previous sections, there is an obvious nexus between the negotiation of international environmental laws or regulatory standards, and the multilevel governance necessary to generate compliance with the goals and objectives of a treaty regime at the local or national level. 

In the following section, we have provided (1) links to the websites of organizations working in related fields (in black text); and (2) a selection of documents (click on the images to download the pdf file) that summarize what's being done within these interconnected communities, which from our perspective, supports our core objectives.

Environmental Crime



Environmental Investigation Agency

UNEP Environmental Crime

Although our ability to provide PDF copies of academic articles is often limited by copyrights, we will be incorporating bibliographies for each section. We encourage you to help us build our bibliographies and to send us links to specific organizations and/or PDFs that you feel should be represented in this section.

COMPARE Environmental Law - Compliance and Enforcement - Environmental Courts - International Courts and Tribunals